Results/Conclusions To examine the relationship between structural and biological complexity and NPP resiliency, we measured stand age, tree species diversity, leaf area, NPP of wood (NPPW), and stem mortality rates in 30 plots in Northern Lower Michigan from 1998-2008. In 2008, we used ground-based Portable Canopy LIDAR to generate vertical cross sections of canopy vegetation distribution from which we estimated rugosity, a metric of structural complexity summarizing variation in vertical vegetation distribution. We found that plots containing a diverse assemblage of mid-successional species showed an attenuated decline in NPPW over time. Leaf area production by mid-successional species correlated positively with stem mortality of early successional species, and 10-year mean of NPPW correlated strongly with increasing canopy rugosity. We found that canopy rugosity increased with stand age and that among similarly aged stands, those with more rugose canopies tended to have higher NPPW. These data suggest that even as mortality of early successional species accelerates, the forest is likely to accrete leaf area from mid-successional species in a spatial distribution that increases the efficiency of canopy C assimilation. We propose that both structural and biotic diversity contribute to NPP resiliency and may act to sustain forest productivity and ecosystem C storage as forests transition from early to middle succession.