Results/Conclusions The characteristics of the zebra mussel population and its effects on other benthic animals both changed substantially through time. Over the period of study, annual survivorship of adult zebra mussels fell >100-fold, which caused the aggregate filtration rate of the population to fall by 82%. Population size and body size of zebra mussels may also have fallen. In the early years of the invasion, densities of nearly all benthic animals in deepwater sites fell steeply (by 80-99%). After about 8 years of decline, these populations began to recover, and are approaching pre-invasion densities. The littoral zoobenthos showed neither the initial decline nor the subsequent recovery. Although the mechanisms behind these changes are not yet clear, our study shows that the effects of an invader may change considerably over time. Understanding and management of non-native species would benefit from more long-term studies of the ecological effects of invaders.